We took a guided bus trip to Avila and Segovia which are two smaller towns approximately 100 Kim's north of Madrid. Both of these towns have very impressive monuments. Avila is in the highlands and was originally settled by the Romans. After the fall of Rome the usual progression of Visigoths defeated by Arabs defeated by Christians etc. etc. etc. In the Middle Ages (1090 ad) the construction of a stone perimeter wall was begun. It is 2500 meters long and encloses an area of 31 ha. Most European cities had stone walls but have long since been torn down . However Avila's wall still exists, extremely impressive to see. There are several cathedrals in town one of which is Saint Teresa's the founder of the Carmelite order of Nuns, which exists world wide today. From Avila we traveled to Segovia where we saw a Roman aqueduct that is about 85 meters high running thru the heart of this town. In addition there are the usual collection of cathedrals and an Alkazar thrown in for good measure. Spain's history was a mystery to me before our trip to Spain, it has now graduated to an enigma. Romans, Visigoths (no they are not from Star Trek), Arabs, Christians, Hapsburg Kings, Bourbon Kings, Bonaparte Queens, Fascist Dictators, Coup attempts as recently as 1981........it's a wonder this country has progressed as far as it has.