Sweet fa so!
We started our day with breakfast and coffee.
Since I was unable to book a tour for today, we headed out and made our way around to the cruise terminal shoppes, walking on through to the center where tours could be booked.
A young man leaning against a post, directly in front of me, asked, "you need a tour?" I said, "yes, how much?" He asked, "where do you want to go?" I showed him the paper of the places I'd like to visit, which I knew were the highlights of the island. He said, "that's allday and that would be 120." Hope is turning towards me, partitioning me off from the young man. She goes, "Debbie, Debbie, Debbie." I'm like, "what?" She says, "I dunno Debbie." I'm like, "we'll be fine." Hope goes, "awwwww Lord." He comes back and asks, "Jus da 2 of you?" I said, "yes." He said, "I jus have to get some money from a lady." I said, "okay." The woman comes to him and places a roll of money into his hand, as she's also trying to cover it, but I saw the wad.
He directs us to follow him to his taxi and asks our names. I say, "Debra." Hope says, "My name is Hope and the Lord watches after me." I look at her and say, "Gurlllllllllllllll, you crazy."
We hop into his taxi and he lays out the map and circles all the stops we want to make. He mapped it out so that we could travel the island in a complete circle, bringing us back to the cruise terminal.
He told us his name was Richard. Richard started our tour, driving us through the Bridgetown area. We passed the Bethel Methodist Church. This church is the main methodist church in Barbados and is part of the Bethel circuit of churches that involves several of the methodist churches in Barbados. A few churchgoers were leaving and a lady out front smiled as I took her picture.
We then passed the Office of the Cabinet Complex and the monument of Sir Grantley Herbert Adams.
Grantley Herbert Adams was born at Colliston, Government Hill, St. Michael, on 28 April 1898. He was the third child of seven born to Fitzherbert Adams and the former Rosa Frances Turney. Grantley was educated at St. Giles and at Harrison College in Barbados. In 1918 he won the Barbados Scholarship and departed the following year for his undergraduate studies at Oxford University. Adams played a single match of first-class cricket for Barbados during the 1925-26 season, as a wicket-keeper against British Guiana in the Inter-Colonial Tournament.
Adams was married to Grace Thorne in 1929 at St. John's Church. Their only child, Tom, himself won the Barbados Scholarship, and attended Oxford to become a lawyer. Tom Adams would later be elected as Barbados' second Prime Minister in 1976.
Adams was president of the Barbados Workers' Union (BWU) from 1941 to 1954. While being a staunch supporter of the monarchy, Adams and his party also demanded more rights for the poor and for the people. Progress toward a more democratic government in Barbados was made in 1942, when the exclusive income qualification was lowered and women were given the right to vote. By 1949 governmental control was wrested from the planters.
Adams became the Prime Minister of the West Indies Federation, defeating Ashford Sinanan by two votes. (Sinanan went on to serve as Leader of the Opposition of Trinidad's Democratic Labour Party.) Adams served this role from 1958 to 1962; Barbados was one of the ten provinces of the West Indies Federation, an organisation doomed by nationalistic attitudes and by the fact that its members, as British colonies, held limited legislative power.
As Premier of Barbados, his leadership failed in attempts to form unions such as the BWU, and his continued defence of the monarchy was used by his opponents as evidence that he was no longer in touch with the needs of his country. Errol Walton Barrow, a fervent reformer, became the new people's advocate. Barrow had left the BLP and formed the Democratic Labour Party (DLP) as a liberal alternative to Adams' conservative government. Barrow instituted many progressive social programmes, including free education for all Barbadians, and the School Meals system. By 1961, Barrow had replaced Adams as Premier and the DLP controlled the government.
Grantley Adams International Airport, formerly Seawell Airport, located in Christ Church, Barbados, was named after the former Prime Minister in 1976. A statue in honour of Adams is located in front of Government Headquarters at Bay Street, St. Michael.
Adams is one of Barbados' National Heroes.
He was the father of Barbados' second Prime Minister following independence, the late J. M. G. "Tom" Adams.
The former home of Sir Grantley Adams located on Roebuck Street, Bridgetown today functions as headquarters of the Barbados Labour Party political group.
Adams is featured on the front of the Barbados $100 bill.
The grounds were well kept and just beautiful.
We were then wisked up and around some winding streets up to the Office of the Garrison Secretary and then by the George Washington House & Museum. We couldn't go in, as there was a private tour going on.
Richard explained to us that the George Washington House in Barbados is a historic house where the future first U.S. President George Washington visited, in 1751. He was 19 years old at the time, and with his ailing half-brother, Lawrence Washington. In 1749, George Washington's half-brother Lawrence fell ill with a cough. By 1751 the illness matured into tuberculosis. Several unsuccessful trips to the hot springs at Berkeley, Virginia and the prospect of another winter at Mount Vernon pushed Lawrence to explore other options. After learning of Barbados and its reputation for treating lung diseases, Lawrence Washington began planning a trip to the island.
Lawrence, however, was unable to undertake the voyage with his wife Anne because of the recent birth of their fourth child. As a result, Lawrence turned to his brother for company. On November 2, 1751, the brigantine Success landed in Barbados and the Washington brothers made their way to the city of Bridgetown.
When the duo arrived in Bridgetown it was one of the largest cities in the British Atlantic. Settled in 1627, Barbados became one of England's most profitable colonies through a booming sugar trade. Visitors noted how "all the Ilands that I have passed by and seen unto this day, not any pleaseth me soe well.
But Barbados' affluence came at a price, as the riches generated by sugar engendered great disparities in wealth. English planters employed thousands of indentured servants and African slaves to farm the plantations. In an effort to control the growing numbers of unfree laborers, the planter elite began turning to increasingly harsh measures to control slaves. When planters migrated from Barbados to the Carolinas in the 1660s they also brought their experience with plantation management. This knowledge formed the first slave codes in mainland British America.
George and Lawrence spent nearly six disaster-filled weeks in Barbados. Lawrence found the oppressive heat miserable and the venture failed to improve his condition. The situation became worse for George Washington. On November 17, 1751, George Washington was stricken with smallpox. Residents of Virginia had little exposure to smallpox and Washington did not have the opportunity to develop immunity to this disease in his youth. Fortunately, Washington recovered quickly and eventually set sail home for Virginia in December.
Washington's trip to Barbados had a significant impact on his life. While in Barbados he explored the economics of sugar cane and the role of Barbados in the Atlantic economy, no doubt influencing his approach to Mount Vernon's plantations. Additionally, he explored the forts and military structures of the island. When he returned to Virginia he placed a renewed emphasis on his role in the military. Washington sought a commission in the regular British Army while engaging in evening conversations with high-ranking military officials.
While this experience undoubtedly fostered his desire to enter the military, Washington's sojourn to Barbados had a greater impact, one with profound implications for the United States of America. During the Revolutionary War the colonial army was ravaged by smallpox. Thanks to his exposure to smallpox in Barbados, Washington was immune to further bouts with the disease and managed to avoid suffering from this illness like his troops. Additionally, it was under Washington's watch that his men were administered one of the earliest known inoculations against smallpox.
Barbados apparently is the only country outside the present United States that George Washington ever visited.
Then we were wisked over to Rockley/Accra Beach. Supposedly Rihanna's favortie beach. Yippie! This beach known as Accra Beach, this very popular south coast beach offers a combination of exciting waves and calm swimming.
The southern end of the beach is perfect for smaller children, as there is a pool-like area protected by rocks that break the force of the waves. For older children the thrill of boogie boarding on the crested waves awaits!
Relax on a chaise lounge or on the soft white sand, under the shade of a casuarina or sea-grape tree (I actually thought these were some kind of sea urchin), or enjoy one of the many watersports activities that are available from the beach such as windsurfing, Hobie Cat rides and body surfing.
Browse the colourful kiosks for tropical clothing & local jewellery and handicraft. Or head to the small restaurant kiosks for a refreshing Banks Beer or tasty fishcakes, a Bajan specialty! For a great lunch stroll to Tiki Bar at the southern end of the beach, or hop across the road to Quayside Centre for a great lunch (grilled fish, Chinese, pizza, pasta, ice cream) and to shop for local craft, giftware and beachwear.
I noticed something shell-like that had fallen to the ground, at the base of a tree. I asked Richard what they were and he said, ""almond, you want to try?" I said, "yes" and he backed the taxi up, hopped out, found a big stone to crack it with and voila! An almond. It was long and slender, fresh, sweet and unprocessed. I asked him to give me a couple to take with me. Heck, his cab was dirty anyway, my nuts weren't going to dirty up a thing.
Our trip then led us to St. Lawrence Gap. St.Lawrence Gap, a 1.3 km stretch of road in the parish of Christ Church, is famous for it's fine restaurants, diverse accommodation, lively nightlife and good shopping.
'The Gap', as it is commonly known, is a place where various cultures meet and merge ... it is an experience that should not be missed!
After lots of photos he drove us through a few local neighborhoods towards Codrington College. We stopped so that he could explain to us what a chatel house and jalousie windows were.
Chattel house is a Barbadian word for a small moveable wooden house that working class people would occupy. The term goes back to the plantation days when the home owners would buy houses designed to move from one property to another. The word "chattel" means movable property so the name was appropriate. Chattel houses are set on blocks or a groundsill rather than being anchored into the ground. In addition, they are built entirely out of wood and assembled without nails. This allowed them to be disassembled (along with the blocks) and moved from place to place. This system was necessary historically because home "owners" typically did not own the land that their house was set on. Instead, their employer often owned the land. In case of a landlord tenant (or employer/employee) dispute, the house could be quickly moved to a new property.
It has been customary for people in Barbados to build additions onto their chattel houses. As such, the house may look as though different sections are at slightly different heights or in a different pattern due to each part being constructed at different stages.
Modern chattel houses tend to have a greater degree of permanence, as they are often connected to the electricity mains, and may either have a permanent septic tank or be connected to a public sewer system.
We drove past another type of house which he explained about the windows. The Victorian period became incorporated into the tradition of Barbados rather than standing on its own. Sash and Jalousie windows were alternated on the buildings facade in perfect proportion. The open verandas were decorated with carved wood tracery and the window parapets were trimmed with filigree, which diffused the light and cast patterns of shade into the sheltered rooms. Victorian frills were adopted in the design of the chattel homes. Chattels, which means movable, were the homes of the sugar cane workers who lived on plantation lands but owned or rented their home from others.
The chattel home was built of wood and set on blocks of coral, without a foundation, so that it could be easily moved in case of a landlord and tenant dispute. The chattels were simple structures but the workmanship and design show remarkable dedication. The tiny chattel house, often skillfully replicate the details of the grandest villas. Ornate fretwork, carved wood bannisters and miniature Jalousie windows decorate them in fine proportion. They attest to the character and the pride of Barbadian, and to their sense of respectability and worth.
Richard was just wisking us around and the sights were spectacular. We were also amazed that Richard knew everyone. He blew his horn and spoke to everyone, within the entire 60 mile drive around the island.
While driving, we passed Grantley Adams Airport and a young woman was exiting the airport. Both she and Richard stopped and I don't know what the woman asked him, but Hope said that he told her, "I'm working." Hope said that she said, "You workin'?" Hope said that she actually said it as if, "so what does that mean?" Hope said the woman looked like she needed a fix, badly. I just laughed. Hope said, that's when she knew that our driver, was a dealer. That's when the light bulb went on in my head about all the money he was collecting along the way.
Anyway, we arrived at Codrington College. The grounds were serene and beautiful. There was a couple enjoying a nice nap on a blanket and a family walking along the small pond there, filled with large goldfish.
Christopher Codrington III (1668-1710), the benefactor after whom Codrington College is named, was the son of a very prominent Barbadian, Christopher Codrington II, who was at one time Governor General of the Leeward Islands. He was born either at Codrington Plantation in St. Michael, or Didmarton Plantation, now called Society, in St. John. He spent most of his boyhood at Consetts, the site of the present College. After joining his father in Antigua for a short while, Christopher Codrington III went to England where he took a degree at Oxford University and became a Fellow of All Souls College. He served in the Army for sometime before returning to the Leeward Islands to succeed his father as Governor General. His policy of amelioration of the poor whites and slaves brought him into disfavour of the plantocracy. Consequently, he gave up the position of Governor Codrington College and returned to Barbados to live in retirement at Consetts in St. John.
Christopher Codrington III, died on Good Friday, April 7, 1710 and was buried at St. Michael's Cathedral. Later his body was exhumed and taken to be buried in the Chapel of All Saints College, to which he bequeathed his large selection of books and £10,000 in cash. In his will he had left to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel the estates at Society and Consetts. One of the purposes of the bequest was that there should be maintained a number of professors who should be obliged to teach medicine, surgery and divinity. So his request stated:
Give and Bequeath my two Plantations in the Island of Barbados to the Society for propagation of the Christian Religion in Forreighn parts, Erected and Established by my Late good master, King William the Third, and my desire is to have the Plantations Continued Intire and three hundred negros at Least Kept always thereon, and A Convenient number of Professors and Scholars Maintained there, all of them to be under the vows of Chastity and obedience, who shall be oblidged to Studdy and Practice Physick and Chyrurgery as well as divinity, that by the apparent usefulness of the former to all mankind, they may Both indear themselves to the People and have better oppertunitys of doeing good To mens Souls whilst Takeing Care of their Bodys. (See Harlow, Vincent T., Christopher Codrington III: 1667-1710, London: Hurst & Company; New York: St. Matrin's Press, 1928, 1990, 213, , 218. The clause in italics was deleted by Archbishop Tenison after being considered popish by Christopher Codrington's heir Colonel William Codrington. So Harlow, Christopher, 213 esp. note 1).
For some time the estates were ran by Barbadian planters, who acted either as agents or trustees or managers, conducting business in the way all estates in Barbados were ran. Codrington's desire to Christianise the slaves was rejected by the Barbadian plantocracy, who opposed teaching the slaves how to read and write. Evidence shows that the slaves were even branded with the letters "SOCIETY" on their chest, a practice that was discontinued when Reverend Holt, Rector of St. Andrew protested to the SPG. In 1741 over 100 slaves from the estates marched to Bridgetown to protest their treatment to the SPG's agent in Barbados. It was only in 1790 when the anti-slavery movement in England exerted pressure on the Anglican Church and the SPG that there was some amelioration in the conditions of the slaves.
After some delay - the result of legal disputes - the erection of the College got under way in 1715. The buildings were not completed until 1743, economic depression, drought and other difficulties having caused further delays. The College was officially opened on September 9, 1745 and the Chapel dedicated on June 11, 1749 - the Feast of St. Barnabas. In 1745 a grammar school, The Lodge School was established at the Chaplain's Lodge (thus the name) to teach the basics of education, reading, writing, Latin, and accountancy.
For a long time the College provided a general education which included philosophy and divinity. As early as 1748 it began lectures in advanced studies, following the appointment of professors of Philosophy and Mathematics, and of surgery, though Codrington College never produced medical doctors nor surgeons. The first graduate was ordained as early as 1759. In this regard, it catered for the sons of the local gentry who would otherwise have gone to England for their education. It also catered for a number of poorer, but academically able, young boys. It served, therefore to prepare young Barbadians for entry into the two Universities in England - Oxford and Cambridge. Later on the College began to offer tertiary education, and was affiliated to the University of Durham in 1875. It prepared candidates for Durham degrees until 1958. At a later date the College became affiliated to the University of the West Indies, for whose degree and Licentiate candidates are now examined.
It was in 1830 that the College began training candidates exclusively for ordination under the Rev. J.H. Pinder. Codrington College, therefore, holds a venerable place in the Anglican Communion as its first Theological College. It ante-dated Chichester (1839) England's First, and Wells (1840), in which latter, J.H. Pinder became the first Principal. He had served at Codrington from 1829-35. An eminent successor of Pinder's, Richard Rawle, 1847 - 1864, successfully opposed the attempt to have the College revert to its former function of educating the sons of the gentry.
Following affiliation with the University of Durham in 1875, the College proceeded to offer programmes in Classics as well as in Theology. As a result, the College has produced many persons who made their mark in teaching, law, medicine, the civil service, as well as in the Church. Since 1955, following the establishment of the University of the West Indies, the College has concentrated on Theological Studies. Its graduates are to be found in various parts of the Anglican Communion: Europe, Africa, North America, Australia, as well as the West Indies. A new development followed the affiliation of the College to the University of the West Indies in 1965. By virtue of this arrangement, the students of the College may be admitted to the Licentiate in Theology and the B.A. Theology of the University. Though the affiliation with Durham University continues, and students may still enter for the Durham B.A. Hons. in Theology, this affiliation is being used for post-graduate studies.
Beginning in 1989/90 the College expanded its offerings into post-graduate study. It is beginning with limited work in Biblical Studies and in Church History. The College has become a depository for archival material on the churches in the West Indies. Its microfilm collection includes the records of the SPG, The Church Missionary Society, the Baptist Missionary Society, and the Presbyterian Church of Trinidad and Grenada. It is hoped that in due course the College will add other collections.
There is a vibrant lay training programme that meets at the College on Saturday. Graduands are granted the Diploma in Theological Studies of the College. Efforts are being made to offer these programmes to the Dioceses of the Province using online technology. The College has a service to perform - a service that is greatly in demand - but it has limited resources with which to do its task. Nevertheless, the College presses on with its mission. That mission is to provide the instrument and means by which the Church in the Province of the West Indies pursues its mission which is to bring all people into unity with God and each other in Christ.
Notable alumni: Alfred Berkeley, bishop of Barbados John Holder, bishop of Barbados and archbishop of the West Indies Thomas Nisbett, first black priest of the Church of England in Bermuda Ewen Ratteray, bishop of Bermuda Cuthbert Woodroffe, archbishop of the West Indies Philip Wright, bishop of Belize
As we entered the church, Hope and I were whispering. Richard said, "why are you whispering? You don't have to whisper." But we explained that you whispered in the Baptist Church. We walked around the chapel just a bit and signed the visitors book and walked out to take photos of the grounds. It was very peaceful there.
We left there and headed on to St. John's Parish Church.
Set on what has been described as the most romantic location on the island of Barbados; St. John's Parish Church commands magnificent panoramic views that stretch from Ragged Point in the east to Pico Tenerife in the north.
It is speculated that St. John's Parish Church was first constructed in 1645; making it one of the oldest churches in Barbados. This first wooden building was destroyed by fire and was replaced in 1660 when construction on a stone structure began. This church building was to cost the diocese one hundred and ten thousand (110,000 lbs) pounds of sugar.
In the hurricane that struck the island of Barbados in 1675, this new church was badly damaged and was completely torn down by 1676. With true Christian perseverance however, another church was built but this structure too fell victim to yet another hurricane in the year 1780. This destruction was again to be the fate of the St. John's Parish Church in Barbados in 1831 when the church was completely destroyed by that great hurricane. The church as we see it today was completed in 1836 and was rededicated on 23rd June the same year. Its chancel was a later addition some forty years after construction with its beautiful stained glass windows being added quite a bit later in 1907.
This beautiful Gothic inspired church is quite a popular attraction for both locals and tourists to the island. The rich history of this church includes a connection to Constantinople, now Istanbul, since it is the final resting place of Ferdinando Paleologus who was the last descendant of the second brother of Constantine, the last Christian Emperor of Constantinople. Paleologus' tomb is marked by a granite tombstone in the rear of church's cemetery.
Paleologus was very active in his adopted home of Barbados; in addition to being a planter in the parish on his plantation called Clifton Hall; he was also a warden at the parish church. Even in death he managed to move around; you see after the hurricane of 1831, Paleologus' body was found embedded in quicklime with his head facing west (in accordance with Eastern orthodox custom) under the organ loft in the vault of Sir Peter Colleton, the deputy Governor of Barbados (1673). The body was then moved and reinterred at its present location in the church's graveyard.
Of special interest at this church as well is the elaborately carved pulpit which is said to contain six different woods; ebony, locust, Barbados mahogany, manchineel, oak and pine - the first four of which are indigenous to Barbados. Additionally the church is also known for its beautifully designed curved staircases which flank either side of the entrance and the Westmacott sculpture which adorns the wall to the left of the church's main door which stands in tribute to Elizabeth Pinder. St. John's Parish Church is also the location of one of only two intact sundials in Barbados, the other located at Codrington College, just a short distance away.
St. John's Parish Church is replete with intriguing discoveries like the grave of Thomas Hughes directly behind that of Paleologus, who was buried in a standing position at his own request since he rarely sat in the job which he held.
As we were driving along, I just kept saying, over and over, "this is just beautiful, this is just beautiful" and Richard kept saying, "you ain't seen nuting yet. You ain't seen nuting yet."
As we passed by tourists busses and taxis, I could see her. I sighed and said, "Oh my. She's beautiful." Richard says, "I told you."
Legend has it that Bathsheba, wife of King David, bathed in milk to keep her skin beautiful and soft. Legend also says that the surf covered white waters of Bathsheba, Barbados rich in minerals and life is said to resemble Bathsheba's bath in both appearance health giving value.
Bathsheba is the main fishing village in the parish of Saint Joseph with some 5,000 inhabitants on the east coastline of Barbados. The town has a number of quaint churches; Saint Joseph Anglican Church was built on Horse Hill in the town as early as 1640 but was rebuilt in 1839 following a hurricane in 1831. Little Saint Joseph chapel was built nearby in 1837 but was restored and dedicated to Saint Aiden in 1904 following a landslide. It has a number of attractions including the Flower Forest and Cotton Tower which is renowned for its dramatic scenery and views of Scotland District. The ecologically rich Joe's River Tropical Rainforest is located on the outskirts of the town with some 85 acres (340,000 m2) of woodland and rainforest with giant ficus, citrifolia, fid woods, white woods, cabbage palm trees and mahogany trees. Bathsheba beach is known as the Soup Bowl where local and international surfing competitions take place annually. Another notable feature of Bathsheba beach is the large boulder that sits slightly offshore, known by some as Bathsheba Rock.
It is breathtakingly beautiful; wide white sand beaches stretch along a dramatic coastline of striking rock formations against which the Atlantic rollers break in cascades of foam. What at first glance look like huge boulders washed up on the beach are actually rock formations broken away from ancient coral reef!
The village of Bathsheba is home to a small community of fishing folk and their families. Along the coast are guest houses, local rum shops and restaurants. It is a hideaway for discerning tourists and for Bajans who frequently weekend here in their seaside cottages along the shore.
After taking great photos and enjoying the fantastic views, Richard called us to cross the street. There was a guy standing and a rastafari sitting with a baby velvet monkey. I asked the rastafari, "what's that in the monkey's mouth?" The rastafari says, "candy." I said, "I didn't know monkeys eat candy." He says, "me baby eat wha I eat." The monkey had a blue hard candy ball in it's jaw. As the monkey was attempting to climb up Hope's arm, I noticed that the guy who was standing, passed a joint to the rastafari. Afterwards, I told Hope, who didn't see that, that perhaps this stop to see a monkey, was actually an inquiry to see if we wanted some ganja. LOL.
We got back into the car and as we are were driving we began talking about hair and dreads. Hope asked Richard if he was a rastafari, but he said that he once was and actually cut off his dreads 3 times.
Rastafari is an Abrahamic belief which developed in Jamaica in the 1930s, following the coronation of Haile Selassie I as Emperor of Ethiopia in 1930. Its adherents worship Haile Selassie I, emperor of Ethiopia (ruled 1930-74), in much the same way as Jesus in his Second Advent, or as God the Father. Members of the Rastafari way of life are known as Rastafari, Rastas, Rastafarians, or simply Ras. Rastafari are also known by their official church titles, such as Elder or High Priest. The way of life is sometimes referred to as "Rastafarianism", but this term is considered offensive by most Rastafari, who, being critical of "isms" (which they see as a typical part of "Babylon" culture), dislike being labelled as an "ism" themselves.
The name Rastafari is taken from Ras Tafari, the title (Ras) and first name (Tafari Makonnen) of Haile Selassie I before his coronation. In Amharic, Ras, literally "head", is an Ethiopian title equivalent to prince or chief, while the personal given name Täfäri (teferi) means one who is revered. Jah is a Biblical name of God, from a shortened form of Jahweh or Jehovah found in Psalms 68:4 in the King James Version of the Bible. Most adherents see Haile Selassie I as Jah or Jah Rastafari, an incarnation of God the Father, the Second Advent of Christ "the Anointed One", i.e. the second coming of Jesus Christ the King to Earth.
Many elements of Rastafari reflect its origins in Jamaica along with Ethiopian culture. Ethiopian Christianity traces its roots to the Church of Alexandria, founded by St Mark, and its 5th-century continuation in the Coptic Church of Alexandria. Rastafari holds many Christian beliefs like the existence of a triune God, called Jah, who had sent his divine incarnate son to Earth in the form of Jesus (Yeshua) and made himself manifest as the divine person of Haile Selassie I. Rastafari accept much of the Bible, although they believe that its message and interpretation have been corrupted.
The Rastafari way of life encompasses the spiritual use of cannabis and the rejection of the degenerate society of materialism, oppression, and sensual pleasures, called Babylon. It proclaims Zion, in reference to Ethiopia, as the original birthplace of humankind, and from the beginning of the way of life calls for repatriation to Zion, the Promised Land and Heaven on Earth. This can mean literally moving to Ethiopia but also refers to mentally and emotionally repatriating before the physical. Some Rastafari also embrace various Afrocentric and Pan-African social and political aspirations.
Some Rastafari do not claim any sect or denomination, and thus encourage one another to find faith and inspiration within themselves, although some do identify strongly with one of the "Mansions of Rastafari"—the three most prominent of these being the Nyahbinghi, the Bobo Ashanti, and the Twelve Tribes of Israel.
By 1997 there were, according to one estimate, around one million Rastafari worldwide. In the 2011 Jamaican census, 29,026 individuals identified themselves as Rastafari. Other sources estimated that in the 2000s they formed "about 5% of the population" of Jamaica, or conjectured that "there are perhaps as many as 100,000 Rastafari in Jamaica".
Richard stated that he was "radical" and didn't mean to be disrespectful. We told him that he didn't need to apologize for his beliefs. Hope asked why some of the men wear the hats and nylon caps? Richard stated that they wear them to look presentable and/or blend in, as years ago, policemen would harass them by cutting the dreads off.
There was a guy standing on the side of the and I asked what was he selling. Richard said, "he selling dunks and fat pork. You wan to try?" We said, "yeah." He bought them for us, sprinkled salt (provided as a condiment). We liked the orange ones (these looked like cherries) over the purple ones. The purple ones had a funny texture, almost like cotton candy and had no sweetness to them. The dunks were sweetened a bit after adding the salt. We told Richard he could have the fat pork. LOL.
We headed up to Morgan Lewis Sugar Mill. We passed a pasture of cows and laughed because one white cow had "DRY' painted in red on his side. At the fork, we took a left, hopped out for some photos and a bit of history about the mill itself.
Morgan Lewis Windmill, St. Andrew, Barbados is the last sugar windmill to operate in Barbados. The mill stopped operating in 1947. In 1962 the mill was given to the Barbados National Trust by its owner Egbert L. Bannister for preservation as a museum.
The site was listed in the 1996 World Monuments Watch by the World Monuments Fund. Restoration began by the Barbados National Trust during the following summer. In 1997, financial support was provided by American Express for emergency repairs. The mill was dismantled for restoration, and reopened in 1999. With all its original working parts having been preserved intact, the sails were able to turn again after the project was completed, and cane was ground again after more than half a century.
It is a unique historic and architectural monument - it is one of the only two working sugar windmills in the world today. (Betty's Hope, in Antigua, was refurbished and restored some years ago and is also functional.) During the 'crop' season, February through July, its sails are put in place and it operates one Sunday in each month, grinding cane and providing cane juice. Around the interior of the mill wall is a museum of sugar mill and plantation artifacts, and an exhibition of old photographs.
We entered a small area of a road, lined by trees. Richard put the car in neutral and his taxi went backyards up a hill, on it's own. He did it twice, just to show us the phenomonon again. He stated that he did not know what caused this.
We then headed over to Cherry Hill. Approximately 850 feet above sea-level, this spot offers an excellent view of the "Scotland District" which covers the parish of St.Andrew and is named after the Patron Saint of Scotland. We took lots of photos here.
It is believed that the name "Cherry Tree Hill" originated from the large number of cherry trees which once existed at this location.
Today the road is lined with mahogany trees, which were introduced into Barbados after the Treaty of Paris in 1763. As you descend the hill the mahogany trees give way to swaying sugar cane.
Cherry Tree Hill is part of the St. Nicholas Abbey plantation. Built in 1658 this is one of only three genuine Jacobean mansions in the Western Hemisphere. St. Nicholas Abbey Rum is produced at the on-site rum distillery. Be sure to stop by and explore the historic home, lovely gardens and fascinating boiling house and distillery.
There were vendors here I purchased some beautiful hand crafted jewelry and Hope purchased a birdfeeder. I also asked Richard to ask the gentleman how much his bottled drinks were. The bottles were half frozen and in this heat I just wanted something cold. The drink was called mauby.
Mauby is a drink that is consumed in Barbados. Sugar and the bark of a small tree are used to make this drink which has an acquired taste. I thought it had sometype of cinnamon or allspice in it, but Richard said, "no." A Mauby bark is an herb that is typically found in a species of trees that is found primarily in the Bahamas. It is also found in the other Caribbean islands.
In Barbados, Mauby is usually bought as syrup and water added to make the drink but many still make it themselves at home from the original bark. Its taste resembles root beer with a bitter after taste. The name Mauby was originally the name for another drink which was apparently made from sweet potatoes.
In olden days Mauby was sold my a 'Mauby woman' who had the Mauby container on her head on top a 'cotta' or 'cotter' as a form of support for the container. A cotter is usually made of cloth or, if cloth is hard to come by, the people in the country would use 'banana leaf' or 'cowslip' (a binding weed, like ivy). Mauby is no longer sold by a 'Mauby woman', instead it is sold in glass or plastic containers.
Health benefits associated with this drink is that it is good for arthritis, reduces cholesterol, treats diarrhea and may help fight diabetes. When combined with coconut milk it may lower blood pressure, according to studies carried out at various universities.
We had a few more sights on our itinerary; however, we were so far out, we would never make it back to the ship on time nor have any shopping time. Richard drove us through Speightstown and then Holetown. He said, when we come back he'll take us to the remainder of the places on our list. We laughed.
He put the pedal to the metal a bit and got us back to the port with about an hour to spare. We both hugged Richard and thanked him for an absolutely wonderful day. Hope and I did a bit of shopping and headed on in. We had to rush to get dressed, again, for dinner.
After dinner, Hope headed over to the Royal Theatre to a movie - The Avengers/Age of Ultron.
Me, I headed to my cabin and settled in for the night.